Monday, 25 November 2013

ਸਧਾਰਨ ਭੂਤ ਕਾਲ سدھارن بھوت کال Past indefinite tense

We liked to learn about the present tense, didn't we? Well now, it's the turn of past tense and the simplest of 'em all is past indefinite or simple past. Here are few examples:

I danced there.
ਮੈਂ ਉੱਥੇ ਨੱਚਦਾ ਸੀ।
میں اتھے نچدا سی۔

He read the book.
ਉਹ ਕਿਤਾਬ ਪੜ੍ਹਦਾ ਸੀ।
اوہ کتاب پڑھدا سی۔

They spoke.
ਉਹ ਬੋਲਦੇ ਸਨ।
اوہ بولدے سن۔

The conjugation is done by removing the ending -ਨਾ/ਣਾ and adding a suitable verb ending plus including the past form of the verb "to be" (ਹੋਣਾ/ہونا) as discussed in the previous post.

The endings for the plural masculine pronouns is -ਦੇ and for plural feminine it's -ਦੀਆਂ while for masculine singulars, it's -ਦਾ and for feminine singulars, it's -ਦੀ। One call recall that these were the same in the present indefinite conjugations.

ਲਿਖਣਾ/لکھنا (to write)

Sunday, 24 November 2013

'ਹੋਣਾ' ਦਾ ਅਤੀਤੀ ਰੂਪ ہونا' دا اتیتی روپ' Past form of 'to be'

In the previous post we learned how to conjugate the verb "to be" in present tense and thus went on to learning various types of present tense formations. Now is the time to look at how to conjugate "to be" in past tense. It is done as follows:

  • I was - ਮੈਂ ਸੀ/ਸਾਂ*             *میں سی/ساں
  • You were - ਤੂੰ ਸੀ/ਸੈਂ*       *توں سی/سیں
  • He/she/it was - ਉਹ ਸੀ      اوہ سی
  • We were - ਅਸੀਂ ਸੀ/ਸਾਂ*   *اسیں سی/ساں
  • You were - ਤੁਸੀਂ ਸੀ           تسیں سی
  • They were - ਉਹ ਸਨ         اوہ سن

*ਸਾਂ(ساں) and ਸੈਂ(سیں) are used much more infrequently in contemporary official Punjabi though they are still prevalent in certain pockets of Punjabi hinterland and can be found extensively in Punjabi literature. When not sure, ਸੀ is always a safe choice. In the coming lessons about conjugations in various past tenses, only ਸੀ would be used for the sake of convenience.

Saturday, 2 November 2013

ਰੰਗ رنگ Colours

Let's learn about words for colours in Punjabi. As nouns, these colours are described by their masculine singular forms (since the word for colour 'ਰੰਗ' is masculine itself!) while as adjectives, they have four different forms depending upon the number and gender of the modified nouns.

This is green colour. 
ਇਹ ਹਰਾ ਰੰਗ ਹੈ।
ایہہ ہرا رنگ ہے۔

The sky is blue.
ਅਸਮਾਨ ਨੀਲਾ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ।
اسمان نیلا ہندا ہے۔

Give me the yellow kites.
ਮੈਨੂੰ ਪੀਲ਼ੀਆਂ ਗੁੱਡੀਆਂ ਦਿਓ।
مینوں پیلیاں گڈیاں دیو۔

And some more...

For describing the lightness of a colour, one can use either 'ਫਿੱਕਾ' or 'ਹਲਕਾ'. The same goes with colourless as there are many words to describe the lack of colour. Given here are just two of them!